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History of elevator industry

The first mention of an elevator (or rather, its inverse image) relates to 2600 BC.It turns out that the construction of the famous pyramids of the Egyptians used a clever device that could lift the stone blocks weighing about 90 kg to a height of 150 meters. 

The living ancestor of the modern elevator mechanism, archaeologists have unearthed in Herculaneum. Remains of this unit, destined to lift food from the kitchen into the dining room are to achieve the minds of antiquity. This once again confirms the fact that the ancients were smart. And because the present is not so far away from ancient civilizations, the descendants have only to adapt and improve what is already invented. 

In antiquity the question of lift was resolved very simply and inhumane - even brilliant thinkers speculating about a person, not shunned slave operation of physical force. Cheap and cheerful. Development of a mechanism involved in the Greek mathematician Archimedes, he made his contribution to the improvement of the elevator. In medieval times, elevators used to transport people and goods to the upper floors of buildings, the mechanism is to be executed by the muscular strength of animals. For example, in 1203 in a French abbey was installed elevator, driven by donkeys. 

It is believed that the first lift was installed in 1743 at the palace of King Louis XV at Versailles, thirty-three to the king could not straining to climb to the apartment of his mistress lying on the floor above. In 1795, our famous Kulibin developed spiral "roll-up and bleed seats" for the Winter Palace. All of these lifts used physical force servants, at least - of draft animals. 

More recent references to the elevators date from the mid-century VI (lifts St. Catherine's Monastery in Egypt), the first quarter of XVIII century (in France) and XVII century (the elevator Windsor Castle in England, "The Flying Chair" Velayera in one of the Parisian palaces). In the XVIII century, passenger lifts have been applied in Russia (lifts the palace buildings of Tsarskoe Selo, near Moscow estate Kuskovo, lifting table and chair in Petrodvortsovskom Hermitage). In 1795, IP Kulibin developed a design screw passenger elevator (lift and bleed seats) for the Winter Palace. In 1816 an elevator was installed in the main house near Moscow estate Arkhangelsk. 

Improving the design of the lift was carried out in parallel with the scientific and technological revolution - the invention of the steam and electric engines, the appearance of an internal combustion engine, creating a pneumatic actuator, the discovery of new materials (including synthetic) and new fuels, etc. 

In 1854, E. G. Otis demonstrated his safety device - catchers - at the Crystal Palace exhibition in New York. Otis became an open platform lifts and an ax chop kept her rope. In this case, the platform remained in place and does not fall into the pit due to catcher. 

The first passenger elevator-lift has been installed in New York in 1857. Otis had no idea that his simple safety device in combination with steel-framed buildings will provide an opportunity to build many skyscrapers. 

In 1859, the firm Otis has set at the "Fifth Avenue" screw lift. From basement to attic building a huge metal threaded screw, and the cab went by him like a nut.Screw was rotated through the pulley belt from the steam engine parked in the basement. When the screw was rotated to the right, the cab went up, left - down. To cabin did not rotate with the screw, along one of its corner in the elevator shaft was held rail-limiter. But this system was slow, inconvenient and expensive. Was installed only two such elevators. The hotel was replaced in 1875. During this period, elevators, usually driven by a steam engine on rails, overhead cables were wound and reeled off the drum. In the U.S., such lifts are called "vertical railway". 

In 1867 at the World Exhibition in Paris were first shown, hydraulic lifts, which have several advantages compared with the rope. Later, a lift installed on the Eiffel Tower. At these elevators could reach a high speed car - up to 3,5 m / s, but due to the high initial cost and operating costs had to refuse them. 

In 1878 was invented by the speed limiter, which allows to include catchers in excess of the rated speed. 

The first electric elevator was patented in 1861 by the same Otis. The first electric passenger elevator with a slatted bed mechanism was made by German firm Siemens & Halske in 1880. He rose to a height of 22 meters in 11 seconds. The first electric elevator firm Otis has been mounted in one of New York skyscrapers in 1889. Since then, the problem of recovery is no longer restrain the growth of building up. At the end of XIX century there were winches with traction, they were hoist with double girth of the pulley. 

By the beginning of XX century, electric lifts are widely used, gradually displacing the elevator with other types of drives. In 1920 appeared the winch with a single girth traction, which are widely used today. In Russia elevator manufacturing started to develop only after the 1917 revolution, when, along with freight and passenger elevators utility started making special types of elevators. 

After World War II, that is, at the end of 1940, the USSR had mastered the mass production of standard designs of lifts of general purpose and high-speed elevators. In 1955-56 VNIIPTMASH with trust "Union Elevator" have created a number of typical designs of passenger elevators for residential and public buildings with capacity from 320 to 1000 kg and a typical number of freight elevators with capacity from 100 to 5000 kg and the hospital lift capacity 500 kg. The greatest development of the domestic elevator manufaturing was in 1963 when it was organized by the Central Design Bureau for the elevators. 

In 1967 Central Design Bureau on elevators has developed a new parametric number of passenger and freight elevators, submitted 36 models and 62 performances. With the growth of large cities and the advent of multi-storey buildings has increased sigificantly and lift park. At the end of 1990 there were elevators, whose operation is based on chips and microelectronics. Despite the considerable variety of types and designs of modern lifts, they all consist of the basic elements that are essentially the same value.